Win2K Server Commands

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Windows 2000 Server offers many commands that can be used from the Command Prompt window or from the recovery console. Some of these commands are utility commands, such as convert, which is used to convert FAT to NTFS, while others are used for troubleshooting such as chkdsk, which checks the integrity of the file systems. The following sections describe different command options in Windows 2000 Server:

General Commands

The commands presented in the following table are general commands for viewing or controlling different aspects of Windows 2000 Server. To find out more about a command, open the Command Prompt window and enter help [command], such as help assoc.

assoc Used to view and change file associations in Windows 2000
at Enables you to schedule one or more programs to run at a designated date and time
attrib For viewing the attributes set for a file and to change one or more attributes
break Used for programs to set break points for debugging a problem
cacls Enables you to view the ACL attributes set for a file and to change one or more attributes
call Used to call a batch file from within another batch file
cd or chdir Enables you to change to a different folder or to view the name of the current folder
chcp Used to view the currently active code page number or to set a different code page number
chkdsk Used to report the disk file system statistics and to correct file system errors such as lost clusters
chkntfs Used to configure automatic checking of a disk when the system is booted
cls Clears the information currently displayed on the screen
cmd Used to start a new NTDVM session
color Sets up the foreground and background screen colors
comp or fc Enables you to compare the information in two files or in two sets of files to determine the differences in content
compact Compresses files and subfolders within a folder or removes the compression attribute
convert Converts a FAT formatted volume to NTFS at the time a server is booted
copy Copies files from one disk location to another
date Enables you to view the date and to reset it
del or erase Deletes specified files on a volume
dir Lists files and subfolders within a folder
diskcomp Checks the contents of one floppy disk against the contents of another
diskcopy Copies information on a floppy disk to another floppy disk
diskperf Installs, starts, or stops the System Monitor disk counters
doskey Starts the recall of previously used command line commands and is used to create command macros
echo Shows an associated message or turns screen messages off or on
endlocal Used in batch files to terminate the storage of command process extensions, such as error level information
exit Used to close the Command Prompt window session
find Used to find a designated set of characters contained in one or more files
findstr Used to find a one or more sets of characters within a set of files
for Used within a batch file to continually run a designated command for a list of character strings or for a group of files
format Formats a disk for FAT or NTFS
ftype Provides detailed information about file associations and it is used to change associations so as to link them with a designated program
goto Used in a batch file to modify the order for running designated lines of commands
graftabl Displays characters and code-page switching for a color display monitor
help Provides a list of the Windows 2000 command line commands and is used to display help about a particular command
if Used to perform a conditional test in a batch file
keyb Enables you to set the keyboard language or layout
label Modifies the label on a disk volume
md or mkdir Used to set up a new folder
mode Sets up parameters for a device or a communications port
more Used to limit the display to one screen at a time so that information does not rush by faster than it can be read
move Enables you to move files from one disk location to another on the same volume
path Used to establish the path or list of folders to search in order to run a program or command
pause Used to pause running a batch file and to display a message until a keyboard key is pressed
popd Deletes a specified drive letter that was temporarily created by pushd
prints Prints a designated file
prompt Modifies the format of the command prompt shown in the Command Prompt window
pushd Creates a temporary drive letter to a network resource
rd or rmdir Deletes a folder or subfolder
recover Enables you to try recovering files and data from a damaged or unreadable disk
rem Used to place comment lines to document the contents of a batch file
ren or rename Renames a file or a group of files
replace Compares files in two disks or folders and synchronizes the files in one to those on another (similar to My Briefcase in earlier versions of Windows)
restore Restores files from another computer that were backed up via the backup command on that computer
set Shows a list of currently set environment variables and is used to modify those variables
setlocal Used to start command process extensions via a batch file, such as for detecting error level information
shift Used within a batch file to shift command extensions from one position to another
sort Sorts lines input into a file, written to the screen, or sent to a printer from a file
start Starts a new Command Prompt window in which to run a program or a command
subst Used to link a path or volume with a designated drive letter
time Used to view the time of day and to reset it
title Modifies the title in the titlebar of the Command Prompt window
tree Used to show a graphic of the folder and subfolder tree structure
type Shows a file's contents on the screen or sends the contents to a file
ver Shows the current version of the operating system
verify Instructs the operating system to verify that each file is accurately written to disk at the time it is created, copied, moved, or updated
vol Used to view the volume label, if there is one, and the volume serial number
xcopy Designed as a fast copy program for files, folders, and subfolders


Network-Related Commands

The commands in the following table are used to test network connectivity and to manage network functions such as configuring services, checking shared files and file locks, and managing print jobs. Information about these commands is available by opening the Command Prompt window and typing the command followed by "/?," such as ipconfig /?.

ipconfig Displays information about the TCP/IP setup at the server
net accounts Used to change account policy settings and to synchronize BDCs
net computer Adds or removes a computer in a domain
net config Shows the started services that can be configured from this command, such as the Server and Workstation services
net continue Resumes a service that has been paused
net file Shows the currently open shared files and file locks and is used to close designated files or to remove file locks
net group Shows the existing global groups and is used to modify those groups
net helpmsg Used to determine the meaning of a numeric network error message
net localgroup Shows the existing local groups and is used to modify those groups
net name Used to display, add, or remove computer names that can participate in the Messenger service
net pause Pauses a service
net print Used to view and manage queued print jobs by computer, share name, and job number
net send Sends a message to designated users or to all users currently connected to the server
net session Shows the users currently connected to the server and is used to disconnect designated user sessions or all user sessions
net share Used to create, delete or show information about a shared resource
net start Shows the started services or is used to start a designated service
net statistics Shows the accumulated statistics about the Server or Workstation service
net stop Stops a network service on the server
net time Used to synchronize the server's clock with that of a another computer in the same or in a different domain; or to view the time as set on another computer in the same or in a different domain
net use Shows information about shared resources or is used to configure, connect, and disconnect shared resources
net user Used to view, add, or modify a user account set up on the server or in a domain
net view Presents a list of domains, the computers and servers in a domain, and all resources shared by a computer in a domain
nbtstat Shows the server and domain names registered to the network
netstat Used to display information about the TCP/IP session at the server
ping Used to poll another TCP/IP node to verify you can communicate with it
tracert Used to view the number of hops and other routing information on the path to the specified server or host


Recovery Console Commands

When you boot into the recovery console to troubleshoot or repair a problem in Windows 2000 Server you can access the commands listed in the following table.

attrib Used to manage attributes
batch Used to execute batch file commands
cd Used to show the current folder name or change to a different folder
chdir Same as the cd command
chkdsk Used to verify disk files
cls Used to clear the screen display
copy Used to copy files
del Used to delete files
delete Same as the del command
dir Used to list files and folders
disable Used to disable a driver or service
diskpart Used to manage disk partitions
enable Used to enable a driver or service
exit Used to close the recovery console and reboots the system
expand Used to decompress a compressed file
fixboot Used to write a new boot sector onto a partition
fixmbr Used to fix the Master Boot Record
format Used to format a disk
help Used to display help information
listsvc Used to list the enabled drivers and services
logon Used to log onto an account
map Used to list the drive mappings or ARC path mappings
md Used to create a folder
mkdir Same as the md command
more Used to display output of one screen full of information and another screen when you press Enter
rd Used to delete a folder
ren Used to rename files
rename Same as the ren command
rmdir Same as the rd command
systemroot Used to set the current folder to system root
type Used to show a file's contents





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